Despite wide-spread perception that bread should be excluded from a diet in order to maintain or lose weight, a team of researchers from the University of Granada (UGR) has found it can be used to regulate appetite, giving consumers more control over their diets and health.
The scientists collaborated with Puratos to study the effects a bread made from a mix of flours (wheat, oat and spelt) and enriched with 7% soluble fibre, 10-11% proteins and 22% dried fruit (figs, apricots and raisins) would have on the appetites of healthy adults.
The group wanted to investigate the appetite ratings and postprandial glucose, insulin and gastrointestinal hormone responses related to hunger and satiety after the intake of a cereal-based bread.
The study followed 30 healthy volunteers between 18 and 29 years of age, who ate breakfast on a daily basis and included bread in their diet.
The experimental group was given one serving (100 g) of the cereal-based bread daily, while the control group ate a breakfast consisting of sliced white bread (85g), jam (10g) and margarine (2g).
The participants were instructed to refrain from alcohol and from performing vigorous physical activities. The evening before the test day, all study participants ate dinner of pizza and pineapple juice.
According to Dr Carolina González-Antón, a dietitian and nutritionist who obtained her doctorate at the UGR and whose doctoral thesis includes the study, people who skip breakfast usually consume pastries, sweets and juices mid-morning to satiate hunger.
“Such eating habits are associated with excess weight and obesity,” she said.
The scientists measured appetite ratings using standardized visual analogue scales and glucose, insulin and gastrointestinal hormone responses over a postprandial time of four hours after the ingestion of each bread.
Results showed the cereal-based bread satiated appetites more than standard bread.
“Consumption of the cereal-based bread contributed to appetite control by reducing hunger and enhancing satiety. In addition, consumption of this bread improved glycemic, insulinemic and gastrointestinal hormone responses in healthy adults,” said Dr González-Antón.
The results of this study were recently published in the Journal of Nutrition and the Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition.
The high-fiber bread analyzed during the study is especially suitable for breakfast.
Carolina Gonzalez-Anton; Belen Lopez-Millan; Maria C Rico; Estefania Sanchez-Rodriguez; Maria D Ruiz-Lopez; Angel Gil; and Maria D Mesa.
The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 145, Issue 2, 1 February 2015, Pages 231–238, https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.200386