Higher levels of lipids passing from the upper gastro-intestinal tract to the sampling site in the small intestine following ingestion of Fabuless was associated with enhanced appetite control, according to findings published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Researchers from Uppsala University in Sweden and the DSM Food Specialties in Delft, the Netherlands, report that the fatty acid-containing crystals were also observed in abundance in the Fabuless group, which may also contribute to the appetite control.
An earlier study, published in the Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, revealed that the fat-based ingredient may work by slowing transit through the intestine. This was reported to occur via the ileal brake, a phenomenon whereby functions in the upper regions of the gastrointestinal tract are inhibited, produced by the effects of satiety hormones like glucagon-like peptides-I and -II in the ileum and colon.
In a review in 2008, scientists from University Hospital Maastricht called the ileal brake ‘a sensible food target for appetite control’ (Physiol Behav., Vol. 95, pp. 271-81). The brake has potential for a couple reasons, they said: Reduces food intake and increases satiety levels; the appetite-reducing effects appear to be maintained over time.
Talking to NutraIngredients-USA, Emily Tellers, DSM global business manager, Fabuless, explained that the new previous study looked at effects on appetite control, with delayed transit time a well established mechanism. The new study however expands on this by investigating the digestion and breakdown of the ingredient.
Led by Uppsala’s Lars Knutson, the researchers recruited 16 people with healthy weight (average age 28, average BMI 22.7 kg/m2) and randomly assigned them to receive either yoghurt containing 8.5 grams of DSM’s palm oil and oat oil emulsion, or yoghurt containing an equal quantity of dairy fat on two separate occasions.
Samples from the stomach and intestine were extracted over the course of two hours following ingestion. Results showed that the Fabuless group exhibited almost double the amount of lipids, mostly in the form of free fatty acids, in the middle intestinal, compared with the control product.
The appearance of needle-shaped crystals was reported as a “novel and unexpected finding”, stated the scientists.
“The occurrence of crystals in the jejunum may alter the conditions for absorption of lipids along the intestine,” explained the researchers. “Although the palmitic acid crystals are transported further down the intestine and into the ileum, free palmitic acid is gradually released from the crystals, taken up by the mixed micelles, and transported to the ileal wall.
“The presence of yet unabsorbed lipids will lead to an activation of the feedback system in the ileum, such as the reduction of gastrointestinal motility and an increase of the release of satiety hormones,” they added.
Philip Rijken, head of Nutritional Science Europe and Asia Pacific at DSM Nutritional Products, welcomed the research, adding they “provide an in depth understanding of the mechanism behind the appetite-reducing effect of Fabuless”.
“The new evidence further validates the enhanced appetite control response to Fabuless by detailing its physiological basis,” said Rijken. “The data add to a previous mechanism of action study, showing that Fabuless induces a significant delay in food transit time. We expect that these latest insights into the mechanism of action will be received with a lot of interest by the scientific community.”
Tellers confirmed that DSM has submitted article 13.1 health claims in the weight management area and is awaiting verdicts from the EFSA. “We have not received any advice from EFSA yet,” she said. DSM Food Specialties funded the current study.
Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Published online ahead of print, doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28941
“Gastrointestinal metabolism of a vegetable oil emulsion in healthy subjects”
L. Knutson, D.J.P.C. Koenders, H. Fridblom, A. Viberg, A. Sein, H. Lennernas