Vitamin D is essential for absorbing calcium and has a direct link to bone and immune health. Yet individuals living in the UK, especially those with darker skin types, are at risk of vitamin D deficiency, especially during the winter months when it is not possible to source vitamin D from the sun.
In a paper published in 'Nutrients', researchers from the University of Surrey conducted a review of blood levels of vitamin D, as well as vitamin D intake, in members of the UK black community.
The Surrey study aimed to measure levels of vitamin D deficiency in the UK African-Caribbean population through analysing data from the UK Biobank data set, which contains data on the health and well-being of more than 502,000 individuals.
Dr Andrea Darling, senior author of the work from the University of Surrey, said: “Our study found that of the 4,046 African Caribbean individuals from the UK Biobank, over 1 out of 3 (37%) were vitamin D deficient and in addition to this, over 40% had insufficient levels for of vitamin D.
“This is very concerning because we also found that more than 95% of the black community population has an insufficient intake of vitamin D. The high levels of deficiency and insufficiency revealed by the study are troubling because of the association between poor vitamin D intake and poor bone and immune health.”
The Surrey researchers found that not consuming oily fish, such as salmon and tuna and not taking vitamin D supplements were associated with an increased likelihood of having vitamin D deficiency.
Rebecca Vearing, PhD research student from the Department of Nutritional Sciences at the University of Surrey, said: “Our findings suggest that there is a need for further public health messaging, especially for ethnic minority groups, to promote vitamin D supplementation and intake of food naturally rich in vitamin D such as oily fish and eggs, or foods such as breakfast cereals which are fortified with vitamin D.”
Vearing, R.M.; Hart, K.H.; Charlton, K.; Probst, Y.; Blackbourn, D.J.; Ahmadi, K.R.; Lanham-New, S.A.; Darling, A.L. Vitamin D
"Vitamin D Status of the British African-Caribbean Residents: Analysis of the UK Biobank Cohort"