Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study using DSM’s tensVida ingredient – composed of the tripeptide isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) derived from milk – indicated a reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 3.8 and 2.3 mmHg, respectively.
Writing in the Nutrition Journal, Esther Boelsma from TNO Quality of Life and Joris Kloek from DSM Biotechnology Center report that such blood pressure reductions are similar to those achieved by lifestyle modifications, and such lifestyle changes have been calculated to reduce the risk of stroke by 15 percent, and coronary heart disease by 6 percent.
“[tensVida], an IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysate, is safe and exerts relevant blood pressure lowering effects in subjects with stage 1 hypertension. It may be included in lifestyle changes aiming to prevent or reduce high blood pressure,” stated the researchers.
On the other hand, no effects were observed when subjects were supplemented with milk protein hydrolysates containing the peptides methionine-alanine-proline (MAP) and leucine-proline-proline (LPP), did not affect blood pressure, a result which “suggests superiority of IPP over the other peptides for blood pressure lowering”, said the researchers.
High blood pressure (hypertension),defined as having a systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) greater than 140 and 90 mmHg, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) - a disease that causes almost 50 per cent of deaths in Europe, and reported to cost the EU economy an estimated €169bn ($202bn) per year.
This is not the first time that proteins derived from milk have been linked to blood pressure improvements, with Washington State University scientists reporting the potential benefits of whey proteins (International Dairy Journal, 2010, Vol. 20, pp. 753-760), while a meta-analysis published in Nutrition (Elsevier) in 2008 (Vol. 24, pp. 933–940) also concluded that milk-derived isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP) do impact blood pressure in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive subjects.
Commercial interest in such products is also prevalent: In addition to DSM’s tensVida (formerly TensGuard), Puleva Biotech is also looking at the potential of hydrolyzed caseins from goat's milk to prevent the development of high blood pressure, and Glanbia Nutritionals offers a proprietary peptide NOP-47 reported to improve blood vessel function (Nutrition Journal, 2009, 8:34).
Boelsma and Kloek recruited 70 Caucasians with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension, and randomly assigned them to one of three groups for four weeks: The first group received tensVide (15 mg IPP daily); the second received other milk protein hydrolysates, providing 13.2 mg MAP, 4.6 mg LPP, and 3.7 mg IPP; and the last group received placebo (cellulose).
Results showed that subjects with stage 1 hypertension, the IPP supplement reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but no benefits were observed in subjects with pre-hypertensive subjects. There were no differences recorded between the MAP, LPP, IPP group and placebo, however.
In terms of a potential mechanism, the researchers note that no changes in blood plasma renin activity, or angiotensin I and II were recorded.
“We could not demonstrate any effects of either MPH on renin activity, angiotensin I and II,” wrote the researchers. “Although local ACE inhibitory effects near the vascular wall may be overlooked by measuring angiotensin in blood samples from the systemic circulation, these findings do not support an angiotensin-mediated effect of ACE inhibition in vivo.”
ACE inhibitors work by inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II, thereby improving blood flow and blood pressure.
“An alternative way in which ACE inhibition could be involved in the observed blood pressure effects would be through an increased availability of the endogenous vasodilator bradykinin,” suggested the researchers. Other potential mechanisms may also exist and the researchers called for additional work to “better characterize these mechanisms”.
The study was funded by DSM Food Specialties, manufacturer of the substances used in the study.
Source: Nutrition Journal
2010, 9:52, doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-52
“IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysate lowers blood pressure in subjects with stage 1 hypertension, a randomized controlled trial”
Authors: E. Boelsma, J. Kloek
The full text of the article can be accessed here.