Seven prospective studies, which provided data on 176,441 subjects and 5,480 incident cases of heart failure, indicated that people with the highest category of EPA and DHA levels had a 14% lower risk of heart failure, compared to people with the lowest levels.
Writing in Clinical Nutrition, scientists from Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard University in Boston also report that the highest intakes of fish were associated with a 15% reduction in heart failure risk.
First line of defense
The conclusions of the meta-analysis echo comments by Dariush Mozaffarian, DrPH, from Harvard University. Speaking at last week’s GOED Exchange in Boston, Dr Mozaffarian told attendees: “The main benefits for omega-3s are for preventing cardiac death.”
"Fish and omega-3 should be the first line of defense against heart disease death.”
National and international recommendations have consistently focused on daily omega-3 consumptions of at least 250 mg of long-chain omega-3s, but median intakes of these is about 50mg/day, added Dr Mozaffarian.
Harry Rice, PhD, vice president of regulatory and scientific affairs for omega-3 trade association GOED, welcomed the new data. Dr Rice told NutraIngredients-USA: "Results from the present meta-analysis of high-quality studies corroborate results from past studies supporting a decreased risk of heart failure among individuals ingesting EPA and DHA. The 3% lower risk of heart failure associated with each 125 mg/day increase in EPA+DHA reveals what a potent effect the long-chain O-3s can have on cardiovascular health.
"Of course, as the authors pointed out, the results need to be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial. There's no reason to believe, however, that the results won't hold true under increased scrutiny."
For the new meta-analysis, the Boston-based scientists identified seven prospective studies for inclusion in their analysis.
After crunching the numbers, they found that for every 15 grams per day increase in fish consumption, the risk of heart failure was reduced by 5%.
In addition, for every 125 mg per day increase in EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids the associated risk of heart failure was decreased by 3%.
Commenting on the potential mechanism, the researchers note that EPA and DHA and fish have been linked to lower levels of triglycerides and improved blood lipid levels, which could favorably influence the heart failure risk. In addition, EPA and DHA have been reported to improved ventricular function, heart rate, and inflammation, they said.
“If confirmed in a large double blind, placebo controlled randomized clinical trial, EPA/DHA could be added to the list of lifestyle factors and pharmacological agents that can be used for the primary prevention of heart failure,” they concluded.
Source: Clinical Nutrition
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2012.05.010
“Fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acids and risk of heart failure: A meta-analysis”
Authors: L. Djoussé, A.O. Akinkuolie, J.H.Y. Wu, E.L. Ding, J.M. Gaziano