Positive effects on fasting blood glucose (FBC) levels were also observed following six weeks of supplementation, whilst an effective dosage of 1,000 mg/d for over eight weeks decreased insulin levels. However, significant changes for high-density cholesterol (HDL), insulin, BMI, and markers of inflammation were not found.
The new ‘Frontiers in Nutrition’ published review concludes that hesperidin supplementation has a lowering effect on TG, TC, and LDL serum levels, as well as lowering TNF-α and blood pressure.
CVDs are known to be the leading cause of death worldwide, contributing to 31% of the total global deaths. The multiple risk factors have been associated with its development, including dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and inflammatory diseases, whilst diet and lifestyle have significant impact on causation.
In light of the noted significance of diet, there has been a heightened recent interest in the use of natural intervention alternatives to drugs, which are noted to have significant adverse side effects.
Polyphenols are a widely studied group of plant bioactive compounds found in many fruits and vegetables, which consist of flavonoids and non-flavonoids. Hesperidin is a well-known flavonoid commonly found within oranges, with notably potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Previous studies have observed its significant positive effects on diseases such as metabolic syndrome and CVD, due to influencing insulin resistance, blood pressure and inflammation. Yet, many human trials have proven inconclusive due to inevitable variations in bioavailability and absorption rates, as well as inter-variability between studies.
Thus, the present systematic review sought to analyse the new available evidence on this topic to assess the efficacy of hesperidin supplementation on CVD risk factors in adults.
The review involved the collation of randomised controlled trials within databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase, using relevant keywords. The impact of hesperidin on various biomarkers was analysed, including the lipid profile, blood glucose, pressure, and inflammatory markers.
It was reported that hesperidin supplementation significantly reduced levels of TG, TC, LDL and TNF-α. Yet, it was noted that this supplementation also induced weight gain in the studied participants.
No significant associations were found between supplementation and HDL, insulin, and IL-6 levels, as well as BMI. A significant association was established between FBC levels and hesperidin after a intervention period of six weeks.
Regarding the significant effects on lipid profiles, the researchers explain: “The mechanism by which hesperidin exerts its function involves various pathways, including the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis via the downregulation of retinol-binding protein (RBP), heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FAB), and cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein (C-FAB) expression.”
They add that hesperidin is also able to inhibit the activity of two enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol.
The report concludes: “This meta-analysis indicated that hesperidin supplementation had a lowering effect on TG, TC, and LDL serum levels, and it also lowered TNF-α and blood pressure.”
Yet the researchers highlight the need for further RCTs to be conducted to understand the mechanism of action, to enable the implementation of hesperidin in future dietary interventions.
Source: Frontiers in Nutrition
“The effects of hesperidin supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in adults: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis”
Atie Sadat Khorasanian, Sahand Tehrani Fateh, Fatemeh Gholami, Niloufar Rasaei, Hadis Gerami, Sayyed Saeid Khayyatzadeh, Farideh Shiraseb and Omid Asbaghi